119 Bijapur, Xizam Saliu over Alimadnagar, and Kutnpana Malaka over Grolkonda. The duration of the government of Bandn of Bedadakoia and others is one hundred years. Of these the Nizam Sahu is the oldest; nest comes Yedula Sahu: and Kutupana Malaka comes last.* Honour is done to (t:ie masters of) these thrones in this order. These three families together own 100,000 excellent horses, arid 100 ghats of elephants. It is not a kingdom protected by foot-soldiers, and there are no Muhammadans to serve (the king's as foot-soldiers). But in Karnataka, (the king) has the fourfold-army: and the skill displayed by the Karnatakas in fighting is not known to the people of those countries. Therefore, the rulers of other kingdoms cannot withstand the Karnatakas." When (Ay y an a Malaka) had related what he had known, AnkusaRavu and Jagadeva Ravu said.......''What the lltissalaiau Ravu(?) had said is correct. The Muhammadans never compare their strength with that of the enemy, when they meet him on the battle-field. If the enemy breaks, unable to resist their fierce onset, they cut him to pieces pursuing him wherever he may go. On the other hand, if the opponents face them boldly, they beseech them afterwards. When the nobles and rmnistersf at the palace who know these affairs ask them to retire (from the battle-field) they do so at once; and do not face (the enemy) having no regard for the loss of prestige to the government which their retirement from the battle-field without showincr o fight might involve. Therefore, when a battle is unavoidable, the Karnatakas who are skilful in fight, discriminate between good and evil, and offering battle, cut (the enemy) to pieces. They have pralhusakti$, and so the foot-soldiers and attendants are useful". When (Ankiiia Ravu and Jagadeva Ravu) explained (the matter), all the amaranayakas who were then present submitted, * Curiously eaough this is in perfect agreement with the order in which these chiefs asserted their independence. f VSkili -pinria-ptddalu literally nxeaji* the elders and the youngsters at the gate, J Poww of sovereignty.